Layer

NameWA Legacies of British Slavery - biographical data
DescriptionBiographical data and locations of 'people of interest' as part of WA Legacies of British Slavery research (ARC Discovery Project DP200100094)
Type
Content Warning
ContributorIsabel Smith
Entries43
Allow ANPS? No
Added to System2022-02-11 17:27:52
Updated in System2022-02-11 17:35:53
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Adam Wallace Elmslie - London

Placename
St Katharine Docks, England
Type
Other

Details

Latitude
51.506278
Longitude
-0.071694

Description

Extended Data

Location notes
The Gilmore left from St Katharines Docks on 18 July 1829, and picked up more passengers from Gravesend and Plymouth. We do not know which port Elmslie embarked at. [5]
Date notes
Biographical information
Adam Wallace Elmslie was born in England in 1874 [7]. He was baptised in Nottingham in 1781. [1] One record indicates he married Sarah Ann Lloyd in Holborn in 1813 [1]. Another suggests they married in 1808 and had 12 children. [3] The following children have been documented: Sarah Ann, born 4 May 1809 in Marylebone; Mary Eliza, born 25/07/1810 and baptised 27/07/1810 in Marylebone; Kenwood Wallace, born 11/01/1812 and baptised 10/02/1812 in Marylebone; Arthur Cruickshank, born 1813 and baptised 1814 in Marylebone; Edward, baptised in St Olave's, London, in 1815; Edgar, baptised in Marylebone in 1824; William, born 10 April 1824 in Woodford; Alice May, born 1835; and Alexis Gordon, born 1838. [1, 3] Elmslie was recorded as a merchant of Crutched Friars when his son Edward was born in London in 1815. He was the business partner of John Wybergh Shaw; this partnership was declared bankrupt around 1824. [1] Alexandra Hasluck wrote that his 'family business had been in the West Indies but had failed'. [2, pp 91-92] In 1829 Elmslie accompanied Thomas Peel to the Swan River Colony aboard the Gilmore as Peel's agent or acting manager. He took his son Arthur and daughter Sarah. [2] Another record suggests he took with him 'Miss E. & Arthur', 2 of his then 10 children. [7]
Links to slavery
Co-heir of John Elmslie, Jamaican slaver and West India merchant; co-owner of West India merchant Elmslie & Shaw; Secretary Jamaica Steam Navigation 1836-8
Attitudes around race
Attitudes around labour
Images
Images notes
References
[1] UCL database https://www.ucl.ac.uk/lbs/person/view/2146645345 [2] Alexandra Hasluck, Thomas Peel of Swan River, Melbourne: Oxford University Press, 1965 [3] https://www.wikitree.com/wiki/Elmslie-45 [4] https://www.mandurah.wa.gov.au/-/media/files/com/downloads/explore/museum/fact-sheets/thomas-peels-ships.pdf [5] https://www.anps.org.au/upload/ANPSPlacenamesReport2.pdf [6] Adam Wallace Elmslie letters, State Library of WA, ACC 603A [7] The Bicentennial Dictionary of Western Australians [8] Shane Burke, Peter Di Marcho and Simon Meath, 'The land ‘flow[ing] … with milk and honey’: Cultural landscape', 2010 [9] http://inherit.stateheritage.wa.gov.au/Public/Inventory/PrintSingleRecord/66ac6f42-adcb-4ec5-9338-c6548844f8fb

Sources

TLCMap ID
39146
Created At
2022-02-11 17:28:14
Updated At
2022-02-11 17:28:14

Charles Dawson Ridley - Vreed en Hoop

Placename
Vreed en Hoop, Demerara (Guyana)
Type
Other

Details

Latitude
6.818278
Longitude
-58.153667

Description

Extended Data

Location notes
Ridley was recorded as administrator (attorney) of Vreed en Hoop ('Peace and Hope') - today a town but formerly a plantation - as well as of Turkeyen and Henrietta. [1] Both sites were located in Demerara, an area now part of Guyana, on the east coast near Georgetown.
Date notes
We do not have a record indicating Ridley's date of arrival in Demerara. The earliest mention we have of him in Demerara is in 1811. In The Essequebo & Demerary Royal Gazette, Saturday December 14, 1811, he is listed as receiving a promotion within the Essequebo Militia: '4th Company – Commanded by Captain M'Pherson ... Chas. Ridley, Gent. to be Second Lieutenant.' [4]
Biographical information
Charles Dawson Ridley was born in 1787 in England. He married Mary Eliza Forrester in 1816. [5] Ridley lived and managed plantations in Demerara - today part of what is known as Guyana. He was the attorney of plantations Vreed en Hoop ('Peace and Hope' - today a town on the west side of the mouth of the Demerara River) and Turkeyen and Henrietta as late as 1826. Attorneys had a lot of authority within the Caribbean plantation management system - they were responsible for managing the estates of 'absentee' owners (those who owned plantations but lived elsewhere). [1] Ridley was business partners with James Walcott, who also oversaw plantations and lived in Demerara. They were likely also brothers-in-law: both married women born in Demerara who had their first children there, before both families moved to Britain and then onto Western Austraila. Two of Ridley’s children also went on to marry Walcotts. [1] On 31 May 1871, his youngest daughter Susan Hinds married Robert Thomas Brockman, the second son of R. J. Brockman [2]
Links to slavery
Ridley was Attorney of Vreed en Hoop ('Peace and Hope') plantation, as well as of Turkeyen and Henrietta. Attorneys had a lot of authority within the Caribbean plantation management system - they were responsible for managing the estates of 'absentee' owners (those who owned plantations but lived elsewhere). By 1832 over 80% of the large sugar plantations had absentee owners, which allowed attorneys to amass considerable wealth. [1] Turkeyen and Henrietta was a major sugar plantation. It was purchased by Liverpool merchant and absentee owner John Gladstone in 1828, and by the time of the emancipation there were 415 enslaved people held there. [6, 1] Slavery heritage of Demerara: Demerara is today part of what is known as Guyana. Some of the earliest settlers of Guyana were Arawak, Carib, and possibly Warao. Although Christopher Columbus sighted the Guyana coast in 1498 and Spain claimed the area, the first Europeans to colonise the land were the Dutch in the late 16th century. In the mid-17th century the Dutch began bringing over enslaved people from West Africa to cultivate sugarcane. From the 1740s, English settlers from Caribbean islands began to move in on the region, first on the island of Wakenaam, then on the coast of Essequibo, followed by Demerara. By 1760, the British were the largest contingent in Demerara. During the Napoleonic wars the British and French in particular fought over the land, but in 1796 the British captured the territories and except for short intervals held 'possession'. In 1831 the British combined Demerara, Essequibo and Berbice to form 'British Guiana'. In 1823 Demerera was the site of one of the greatest uprisings of enslaved people in history: the 1823 Demerara rebellion involved over 10,000 enslaved people and was crucial in the dismantling of Caribbean slave systems. [1]
Attitudes around race
Attitudes around labour
Images
An Illustrated History of British Guiana by George Hanneman Bennett: https://www.google.com.au/books/edition/An_Illustrated_History_of_British_Guiana/pe0jAAAAMAAJ?hl=en&gbpv=1&printsec=frontcover
References
[1] Jane Lydon forthcoming article [2] The Inquirer & Commercial News (Perth, WA) 14 June 1871 [3] http://sites.rootsweb.com/~nyggbs/Transcriptions/RoyalGazette/RoyalGazetteTranscriptions.htm [4] https://www.vc.id.au/edg/18111214edrg.html [5] https://www.vc.id.au/tb/bgcolonistsR.html [6] The London Gazette, no. 17693 31 March, 1821, https://www.thegazette.co.uk/London/issue/17693/page/740/data.pdf [7] Western Australian Dictionary of Biography, 'C. D. RIDLEY' [8] City of Swan, Altone Local Area Plan, January 2016 [9] https://trove.nla.gov.au/newspaper/article/639434?searchTerm=ridley [10] https://www.ucl.ac.uk/lbs/person/view/2146652249

Sources

TLCMap ID
39153
Created At
2022-02-11 17:28:32
Updated At
2022-02-11 17:28:32

Charles Dawson Ridley - London

Placename
London, England
Type
Other

Details

Latitude
51.50325
Longitude
-0.127722

Description

Extended Data

Location notes
We do not know the exact location Ridley stayed at in London so have given the estimate of central London on Downing Street.
Date notes
There is no recorded date of Ridley's departure from Demerara to England. We have located it between 1823 and 1828 due to the recorded birth places of his children - his third child Joseph Beete was born in Demerara in 1823, while his fourth child Lewis Forrester was born in London in 1828. This suggests the Ridleys remained in Demerera until at least 1823, reaching Britain by 1828. Ridley was also Recorded as administrator of Vreed en Hoop and Turkeyen and Henrietta as late as 1826. Though it is possible he was an absentee administrator, we have given the estimated date of 01-01-1827 for his arrival in England. [1]
Biographical information
Ridley and his wife Mary had nine children: Charles (b. Demerara, 1819, died 1848 WA), Eliza (1821, Demerara, died 1834 WA), Joseph Beete (b.1823 Demerara, died 1893 Toodyay), Lewis Forrester (b.1828 London, died 1898 London), Mary Forrester (b.1833 WA, d.1835 WA), Ellen Bull (b.1836 WA, d.1891 WA), Harriet McKenzie (b.1838 York, d.1838 Perth), Susan Hinds (b.1842 WA, d.1919 Perth), and Elizabeth (b.1846, WA ‘deceased’?) The births of third child Joseph Beete in Demerara in 1823, and fourth child Lewis Forrester in London in 1828, suggest the Ridleys remained in Demerera until at least 1823. Ridley was also recorded as administrator of Vreed en Hoop and Turkeyen and Henrietta as late as 1826, however it is possible he was an absentee administrator and was not in fact living in Demerara at this time. We assume that Ridley and his family were in England by 1828, before moving on to Western Australia.
Links to slavery
Ridley was Attorney of Vreed en Hoop ('Peace and Hope') plantation, as well as of Turkeyen and Henrietta. Attorneys had a lot of authority within the Caribbean plantation management system - they were responsible for managing the estates of 'absentee' owners (those who owned plantations but lived elsewhere). By 1832 over 80% of the large sugar plantations had absentee owners, which allowed attorneys to amass considerable wealth. [1] Turkeyen and Henrietta was a major sugar plantation. It was purchased by Liverpool merchant and absentee owner John Gladstone in 1828, and by the time of the emancipation there were 415 enslaved people held there. [6, 1] Slavery heritage of Demerara: Demerara is today part of what is known as Guyana. Some of the earliest settlers of Guyana were Arawak, Carib, and possibly Warao. Although Christopher Columbus sighted the Guyana coast in 1498 and Spain claimed the area, the first Europeans to colonise the land were the Dutch in the late 16th century. In the mid-17th century the Dutch began bringing over enslaved people from West Africa to cultivate sugarcane. From the 1740s, English settlers from Caribbean islands began to move in on the region, first on the island of Wakenaam, then on the coast of Essequibo, followed by Demerara. By 1760, the British were the largest contingent in Demerara. During the Napoleonic wars the British and French in particular fought over the land, but in 1796 the British captured the territories and except for short intervals held 'possession'. In 1831 the British combined Demerara, Essequibo and Berbice to form 'British Guiana'. In 1823 Demerera was the site of one of the greatest uprisings of enslaved people in history: the 1823 Demerara rebellion involved over 10,000 enslaved people and was crucial in the dismantling of Caribbean slave systems. [1]
Attitudes around race
Attitudes around labour
Images
References

Sources

TLCMap ID
39154
Created At
2022-02-11 17:28:32
Updated At
2022-02-11 17:28:32

Frances Louisa Bussell - Portsmouth

Placename
Portsmouth, England
Type
Other

Details

Latitude
50.801389
Longitude
-1.109861

Description

Extended Data

Location notes
Selected location near the Portsmouth Historic Dockyard, though have not pinpointed the exact dock that the James Pattison departed from.
Date notes
We do not have a record of the ship departure date, however in a letter dated 5 May 1834 Bussell refers to 'those dear hearts who have thought and prayed for us in all their positions for the last 84 days and nights', suggesting that she departed England on 10 February. [5]
Biographical information
Frances Louisa Bussell (née Yates) was born in England in 1782. She married Reverend William Marchant Bussell and had nine children: John Garrett, Charles, Joseph Vernon, Alfred Pickmore, Lenox, Frances Louisa (Fanny), Elizabeth (Bessie) Capel and Mary. Reverend William Marchant Bussell died in 1820. The following decade Frances Louisa and seven of her children left England and became prominent colonists in the southwest of WA. [13] Bussell left for WA in early 1834 with her eldest daughter Mary. [6] In a letter written to her sisters while anchored at Table Bay, Cape Town, on 5 May, she refers to 'those dear hearts who have thought and prayed for us in all their positions for the last 84 days and nights', suggesting that she departed England on 10 February. She said of the journey: 'We are in health and spirits and have heard favourable accounts of our dear Augustine. The voyage has been tedious for the impatient but remarkably propitious. Not one passenger would we wish away we have had no storms and very few annoyances or “fikes” as some of our scotch friends term.' [5]
Links to slavery
Attitudes around race
Attitudes around labour
Images
Images notes
References
[1] https://slwa.wa.gov.au/pdf/mn/bussell/Bussell_Frances_Louisa__Senior_.pdf [2] State Library of WA, ACC 3893A/23 [3] State Library of WA, ACC 3893A/24 [4] State Library of WA, ACC 337A/317 [5] State Library of WA, ACC 3893A/21 [6] https://slwa.wa.gov.au/pdf/mn/bussell/Bussell_Mary_Yates.pdf [7] The Bicentennial Dictionary of Western Australians, 'Frances Louisa BUSSELL' [8] https://trove.nla.gov.au/newspaper/article/641393?searchTerm=%22james%20pattison%22 [9] https://trove.nla.gov.au/newspaper/article/641354?searchTerm=%22james%20pattison%22 [10] https://trove.nla.gov.au/newspaper/article/641315?searchTerm=%22james%20pattison%22%20bussell` [11] State Library of WA, ACC 337A/310 [12] http://inherit.stateheritage.wa.gov.au/Public/Inventory/Details/fad84854-fc8e-4f95-8e72-dc2a0e7e770d [13] Cattle Chosen, London: Oxford University Press, 1926 [14] http://inherit.stateheritage.wa.gov.au/Public/Inventory/PrintSingleRecord/eea003bd-81eb-4f71-b38f-fd030d9d9532 [15] https://www.amrshire.wa.gov.au/library/file/6%20Region/WalkingTrails/augbsnHeritageTrail.pdf [16] https://www.abc.net.au/news/2021-09-17/wonnerup-minninup-massacre-the-ghosts-are-not-silent/100458938 [17] Warren Bert Kimberly, History of West Australia, 1897

Sources

TLCMap ID
39158
Created At
2022-02-11 17:28:43
Updated At
2022-02-11 17:28:43

Adam Wallace Elmslie - Woodman Point

Placename
Woodman Point
Type
Other

Details

Latitude
-32.134361
Longitude
115.747

Description

Extended Data

Location notes
Date notes
Biographical information
Passengers of the Gilmore finally disembarked at Woodman Point on 15 December 1829. [4]
Links to slavery
Attitudes around race
Attitudes around labour
Images
Images notes
References

Sources

TLCMap ID
39147
Created At
2022-02-11 17:28:14
Updated At
2022-02-11 17:28:14

Adam Wallace Elmslie - Derbarl Yerrigan

Placename
Derbarl Yerrigan (Swan River)
Type
Other

Details

Latitude
-31.894278
Longitude
115.965889

Description

Extended Data

Location notes
We have not identified the exact location of Elmslie's grant, however he describes it as 'about seven miles above Guildford on the North Bank of the Swan' [6]
Date notes
We are yet to obtain the original land grant to check the date Elmslie officially started occupying this land. This date is therefore an estimate.
Biographical information
Elmslie was alloted 4306 acres at the Swan River colony. [2] In a letter to James Elmslie Esquire, dated 10 March 1831 from the Swan River, he writes: 'overlooking the river with a few acres of meadow in front well adapted for building on; the situation for that purpose is really beautiful. It is about seven miles above Guildford on the North Bank of the Swan ... There is a much finer grant in point of size being about 5000 acres, which I should very much like to possess, I think it is the very best on the whole river.' [6] Elmslie struggled in the colony (see further details under biographical information for Vauxhall, London). Alexandra Hasluck wrote that Elmslie considered himself entitled to more land than he was allotted and was jealous of naval officers, and highly critical of the enterprise. [2] His eldest daughter, Sarah, returned to England on the Wanstead on 30 January 1830, less than two months after arriving. [7]
Links to slavery
Attitudes around race
Attitudes around labour
Images
Images notes
References

Sources

TLCMap ID
39148
Created At
2022-02-11 17:28:14
Updated At
2022-02-11 17:28:14

Adam Wallace Elmslie - Peel region

Placename
Peel region
Type
Other

Details

Latitude
-32.17475
Longitude
115.775278

Description

Extended Data

Location notes
There is disagreement over the exact location of the Peel settlement - archaeologist Shane Burke has located it at Mount Brown, whereas historians Pamela Statham Drew and Ruth Marchant James locate it at Woodman Point. [9] We have located it at Mount Brown.
Date notes
Biographical information
As agent or acting manager to Thomas Peel, Elmslie would have been involved in the failed 'Peel town' - a transient town operating between 1829 and 1830 to accommodate the rapid influx of British into the Swan River colony. Shane Burke, Peter Di Marcho and Simon Meath's analysis of Peel town explains: 'disease, low morale and the addition of further colonists from Britain into the camp area eroded the predetermined ideas of class segregation and the control of resources, seriously affecting the leadership group’s ability to maintain authority.' [8, p 5]
Links to slavery
Attitudes around race
Attitudes around labour
Images
Map showing Peel Estate: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Peel_Estate#/media/File:Wagroupsettlement.jpg
Images notes
References

Sources

TLCMap ID
39149
Created At
2022-02-11 17:28:14
Updated At
2022-02-11 17:28:14

Adam Wallace Elmslie - Launceston

Placename
Launceston, Tasmania
Type
Other

Details

Latitude
-41.436167
Longitude
147.131056

Description

Extended Data

Location notes
Date notes
Biographical information
On 3 July 1831, Elmslie left the Swan River to visit Tasmania. He arrived in Launceston aboard the Nimrod on 24 July.
Links to slavery
Attitudes around race
Attitudes around labour
Images
Newspaper notice of Elmslie's arrival in Launceston: https://trove.nla.gov.au/newspaper/article/84775197
Images notes
References

Sources

TLCMap ID
39150
Created At
2022-02-11 17:28:14
Updated At
2022-02-11 17:28:14

Adam Wallace Elmslie - Derbarl Yerrigan

Placename
Derbarl Yerrigan (Swan River)
Type
Other

Details

Latitude
-32.035861
Longitude
115.758806

Description

Extended Data

Location notes
Date notes
We do not know the exact date Elmslie returned to WA but records indicate he left Tasmania aboard the Eagle in March 1832. [7]
Biographical information
Elmslie left Tasmania in March 1832 to return to the Swan River colony aboard the Eagle. The Bicentennial Dictionary of Western Australians states that he was 'attempting to transfer his land claims to Tasmania.' [7]
Links to slavery
Attitudes around race
Attitudes around labour
Images
Images notes
References

Sources

TLCMap ID
39151
Created At
2022-02-11 17:28:14
Updated At
2022-02-11 17:28:14

Frances Louisa Bussell - Kincinnup

Placename
Kincinnup (Albany)
Type
Other

Details

Latitude
-35.048278
Longitude
117.968028

Description

Extended Data

Location notes
Date notes
Biographical information
Bussell and her daughter Mary arrived at King George Sound in Kincinnup (Albany) aboard the James Pattison on 19 June 1834. [7] They soon sailed on to Walyalup (Fremantle). Sons John Garrett, Charles, Joseph Vernon, Alfred Pickmore had arrived in 1830, and Lenox, Fanny and Bessie in 1833.
Links to slavery
Attitudes around race
Attitudes around labour
Images
Images notes
References

Sources

TLCMap ID
39159
Created At
2022-02-11 17:28:43
Updated At
2022-02-11 17:28:43

Adam Wallace Elmslie - London

Placename
Kennington Road, Vauxhall, London
Type
Other

Details

Latitude
51.486472
Longitude
-0.111306

Description

Extended Data

Location notes
Date notes
We do not know the exact date that Elmslie returned to England, however records state that he was 'Of Kennington Street, Vauxhall, for the baptism of Alice May (born 1835) and Alexis Gordon (born 1838) in Lambeth in 1842.' [1] We have used an estimate of mid-1842.
Biographical information
Elmslie struggled in the colony - financially, physically and emotionally. In his letter to James Elmslie Esquire, dated 10 March 1831, he writes 'As far as I have observed, the conclusion I draw is that if I had a little money & had laid myself out for business on Peel's failure, I should have done well. But I see you are altogether for agriculture. Stick to the plough you say. And so I will, if I can get a plough to stick to with a team of bullocks and other things indispensable for a farm. But time wears away apace and there is still to be endured the heartbreaking separation from my wife & children. My constant reflections & anxiety about them keep me in such a state of agitation and at times throw me into such unspeakable agony of mind, that I am sure I cannot much longer endure it. I suffer, from this cause, most dreadfully in my health I am never well many days together. And I am in dread continually of another attack of the complaint which almost carried me off last year, as I have frequent symptoms & slight touches of it. Medicine does me no good, except of a restorative kind after I have subdued the complaint by starvation, my favourite remedy, and am become weak. Nevertheless I am obliged to get through a great deal of hard work, having no servant, such as hewing & bringing home wood for fuel, fetching water, & a good deal of other household work, especially when Arthur [his son] is from home, which he is frequently obliged to be in search of game & fish at both of which occupations he is very expert.' [6] Elsmlie seems to have returned to England in the mid-1800s. Records state he was 'Of Kennington Street, Vauxhall, for the baptism of Alice May (born 1835) and Alexis Gordon (born 1838) in Lambeth in 1842.' [1]
Links to slavery
Attitudes around race
Attitudes around labour
Images
Images notes
References

Sources

TLCMap ID
39152
Created At
2022-02-11 17:28:14
Updated At
2022-02-11 17:28:14

Charles Dawson Ridley - Walyalup

Placename
Walyalup (Fremantle)
Type
Other

Details

Latitude
-32.056861
Longitude
115.741389

Description

Extended Data

Location notes
Date notes
Biographical information
Ridley and James Walcott, along with their families, are described by the Legacies of British Slavery database as ‘what appears to have been a group of people moving from Demerara to Western Australia c. 1830' [10] Both arrived at Walyalup (Fremantle) aboard the Wanstead on 30 January 1830. [1]
Links to slavery
Ridley was Attorney of Vreed en Hoop ('Peace and Hope') plantation, as well as of Turkeyen and Henrietta. Attorneys had a lot of authority within the Caribbean plantation management system - they were responsible for managing the estates of 'absentee' owners (those who owned plantations but lived elsewhere). By 1832 over 80% of the large sugar plantations had absentee owners, which allowed attorneys to amass considerable wealth. [1] Turkeyen and Henrietta was a major sugar plantation. It was purchased by Liverpool merchant and absentee owner John Gladstone in 1828, and by the time of the emancipation there were 415 enslaved people held there. [6, 1] Slavery heritage of Demerara: Demerara is today part of what is known as Guyana. Some of the earliest settlers of Guyana were Arawak, Carib, and possibly Warao. Although Christopher Columbus sighted the Guyana coast in 1498 and Spain claimed the area, the first Europeans to colonise the land were the Dutch in the late 16th century. In the mid-17th century the Dutch began bringing over enslaved people from West Africa to cultivate sugarcane. From the 1740s, English settlers from Caribbean islands began to move in on the region, first on the island of Wakenaam, then on the coast of Essequibo, followed by Demerara. By 1760, the British were the largest contingent in Demerara. During the Napoleonic wars the British and French in particular fought over the land, but in 1796 the British captured the territories and except for short intervals held 'possession'. In 1831 the British combined Demerara, Essequibo and Berbice to form 'British Guiana'. In 1823 Demerera was the site of one of the greatest uprisings of enslaved people in history: the 1823 Demerara rebellion involved over 10,000 enslaved people and was crucial in the dismantling of Caribbean slave systems. [1]
Attitudes around race
Attitudes around labour
Images
References

Sources

TLCMap ID
39155
Created At
2022-02-11 17:28:32
Updated At
2022-02-11 17:28:32

Charles Dawson Ridley - Caversham / Lockridge

Placename
Caversham / Lockridge
Type
Other

Details

Latitude
-31.883111
Longitude
115.990139

Description

Extended Data

Location notes
Date notes
This is the date Ridley was officially granted the land. [1]
Biographical information
Along with Walcott, Ridley was one of the first large land grantees in WA. Both had substantial capital and were awarded prime allotments on Wadjuk Noongar Boodjar (Country), on Derbarl Yerrigan (the Swan River), opposite the Governor of WA and near the junction of the Helena and Swan Rivers. American historian Warren Bert Kimberly described Ridley and Walcott amongst those first colonists who had ‘chosen places where the soil appeared most promising, and where they could partake of the advantage of river transit’. [1] Kimberly recorded awards of land in 1830 on the Swan 'to C. D. Ridley, 1,432½ acres in fee simple, 1st May; and on 14th December 1830 James Wallcott, 16,083, fee simple; 17th December, Charles D. Ridley, 8,750.' [1] Ridley was granted 12,546 acres of land. The Western Australian Dictionary of Biography states that he selected '8750 acres in the Avon district, 317.5 acres at Helena and 143.5 acres at Swan'. [7] Jane Lydon explains that 'Before 1832 ... colonists arriving before the end of 1830 could claim 40 acres for every £3 of capital invested, and those arriving after December 1830 could claim 20 acres. According to the land schedule (or Return of Property on which land has been claimed from 1st September to 30th June 1830) ... Ridley’s property comprised one wife, four children, one friend, six servants; £93 servants and children, £154 12s. 10d. livestock, £429 9s. 2 ½ d., provisions £107 6s. 4 ½ d., seeds and plants £5 10s. 6d., miscellaneous £151 17s. 8d., totalling £940 16s. 7d. (inapplicable £214 1s). [1] Though Ridley and Walcott had adjoining blocks, there are signs that they went their own ways after arrival, such as a dispute in late 1835 regarding an agreement to erect a party fence between their adjoining properties. But they were still neighbours in February 1837 when the local newspaper reported a terrible fire at the Walcott property, 'which, in less than ten minutes, destroyed the whole of the thatched dwelling-house, and kitchen adjoining, with about thirty bushels of barley, and ten of wheat, in the latter building.' Ridley's son is referenced as one of the Walcott's neighbours in this article. [1]
Links to slavery
Ridley was Attorney of Vreed en Hoop ('Peace and Hope') plantation, as well as of Turkeyen and Henrietta. Attorneys had a lot of authority within the Caribbean plantation management system - they were responsible for managing the estates of 'absentee' owners (those who owned plantations but lived elsewhere). By 1832 over 80% of the large sugar plantations had absentee owners, which allowed attorneys to amass considerable wealth. [1] Turkeyen and Henrietta was a major sugar plantation. It was purchased by Liverpool merchant and absentee owner John Gladstone in 1828, and by the time of the emancipation there were 415 enslaved people held there. [6, 1] Slavery heritage of Demerara: Demerara is today part of what is known as Guyana. Some of the earliest settlers of Guyana were Arawak, Carib, and possibly Warao. Although Christopher Columbus sighted the Guyana coast in 1498 and Spain claimed the area, the first Europeans to colonise the land were the Dutch in the late 16th century. In the mid-17th century the Dutch began bringing over enslaved people from West Africa to cultivate sugarcane. From the 1740s, English settlers from Caribbean islands began to move in on the region, first on the island of Wakenaam, then on the coast of Essequibo, followed by Demerara. By 1760, the British were the largest contingent in Demerara. During the Napoleonic wars the British and French in particular fought over the land, but in 1796 the British captured the territories and except for short intervals held 'possession'. In 1831 the British combined Demerara, Essequibo and Berbice to form 'British Guiana'. In 1823 Demerera was the site of one of the greatest uprisings of enslaved people in history: the 1823 Demerara rebellion involved over 10,000 enslaved people and was crucial in the dismantling of Caribbean slave systems. [1]
Attitudes around race
Attitudes around labour
Images
References

Sources

TLCMap ID
39156
Created At
2022-02-11 17:28:32
Updated At
2022-02-11 17:28:32

Charles Dawson Ridley - Avon Valley

Placename
Avon Valley, near Northam
Type
Other

Details

Latitude
-31.643861
Longitude
116.648472

Description

Extended Data

Location notes
We do not know the exact location of Ridley's Avon Valley block, but have located it just outside of Northam
Date notes
Though the Avon Valley block was awarded to Ridley in 1830, colonists did not expand inland into this region until 1831. We do not know the exact date that Ridley began working on this block, but the earliest mention we have is on 18 August 1838, when the Government Gazette reported 'in regard to the Division Line between the Districts of York and Toodyay, to include in the former Mr. Ridley's Farm'. [9]
Biographical information
Ridley was working on land in the Avon Valley by August 1838, taking up land near Northam. In October he was advertising in the newspaper for wheat and for ‘hands’ to ‘clear land, plough, &c’ at the farm. [1] The block officially became part of the York district that year. Jane Lydon explains that 'the York farmers' demands for labour - along with their techniques of discipline such as flogging - were already widespread by the late 1830s.' ... Among the "big York farmers", Ridley was a prime mover in the district’s Agricultural Society, which aimed to disseminate techniques of labour discipline and promoted a variety of labour schemes, seeking variously to put Noongar to work, to import British "Orphan and Destitute’"children, poor German families, or labourers from places as distant as Singapore, China, and Tasmania.' He was Secretary in May, 1833, when it announced a special meeting to discuss ‘the propriety of opening a Correspondence with the Society in London, “For the permanent Support of Orphan and Destitute Children, by means of Apprenticeship in the Colonies.”’ This led to one of the earliest British child migration schemes, conducted by The Society for the Suppression of Juvenile Vagrancy.' [1] Ridley also led the exploitation of timber - in particular jarrah (which did not take off) and the very successful sandalwood - as well as the cultivation of sugar cane, not as a staple product, but to supply the colony with sugar, syrup, molasses, rum, vinegar, and conserves. [1]
Links to slavery
Ridley was Attorney of Vreed en Hoop ('Peace and Hope') plantation, as well as of Turkeyen and Henrietta. Attorneys had a lot of authority within the Caribbean plantation management system - they were responsible for managing the estates of 'absentee' owners (those who owned plantations but lived elsewhere). By 1832 over 80% of the large sugar plantations had absentee owners, which allowed attorneys to amass considerable wealth. [1] Turkeyen and Henrietta was a major sugar plantation. It was purchased by Liverpool merchant and absentee owner John Gladstone in 1828, and by the time of the emancipation there were 415 enslaved people held there. [6, 1] Slavery heritage of Demerara: Demerara is today part of what is known as Guyana. Some of the earliest settlers of Guyana were Arawak, Carib, and possibly Warao. Although Christopher Columbus sighted the Guyana coast in 1498 and Spain claimed the area, the first Europeans to colonise the land were the Dutch in the late 16th century. In the mid-17th century the Dutch began bringing over enslaved people from West Africa to cultivate sugarcane. From the 1740s, English settlers from Caribbean islands began to move in on the region, first on the island of Wakenaam, then on the coast of Essequibo, followed by Demerara. By 1760, the British were the largest contingent in Demerara. During the Napoleonic wars the British and French in particular fought over the land, but in 1796 the British captured the territories and except for short intervals held 'possession'. In 1831 the British combined Demerara, Essequibo and Berbice to form 'British Guiana'. In 1823 Demerera was the site of one of the greatest uprisings of enslaved people in history: the 1823 Demerara rebellion involved over 10,000 enslaved people and was crucial in the dismantling of Caribbean slave systems. [1]
Attitudes around race
Attitudes around labour
Jane Lydon explains that 'the York farmers' demands for labour - along with their techniques of discipline such as flogging - were already widespread by the late 1830s.' ... Among the ‘big York farmers’, Ridley was a prime mover in the district’s Agricultural Society, which aimed to disseminate techniques of labour discipline and promoted a variety of labour schemes, seeking variously to put Noongar to work, to import British ‘Orphan and Destitute’ children, poor German families, or labourers from places as distant as Singapore, China, and Tasmania.' He was Secretary in May, 1833, when it announced a special meeting to discuss ‘the propriety of opening a Correspondence with the Society in London, “For the permanent Support of Orphan and Destitute Children, by means of Apprenticeship in the Colonies.”’ This led to one of the earliest British child migration schemes, conducted by The Society for the Suppression of Juvenile Vagrancy. [1]
Images
Newspaper notice referring to Ridley's farm between the York and Toodyay Districts: https://trove.nla.gov.au/newspaper/article/639434?searchTerm=ridley
References

Sources

TLCMap ID
39157
Created At
2022-02-11 17:28:32
Updated At
2022-02-11 17:28:32

Frances Louisa Bussell - Walylalup

Placename
Walyalup (Fremantle)
Type
Other

Details

Latitude
-32.056861
Longitude
115.741389

Description

Extended Data

Location notes
Date notes
Biographical information
After delays due to bad weather, the James Pattison arrived at Walyalup (Fremantle) on Tuesday 19 August 1834. [8,9, 10] In a letter to Elizabeth Capel Carter dated 27 August, Bussell writes: 'Perplexed and worried as I am in landing and collecting my property and the ships on the point of [sinking/sailing?] I snatch a moment to say we arrived safe and well. We are now at Fremantle with the McDermots and were to have been conveyed to Perth to day to stay with Lady Stirling till the arrival of the Colonial Schooner which is to embark us for Augusta.' [11]
Links to slavery
In her letter to Elizabeth Capel Carter on 27 August 1834, Bussell writes: 'We left Atwood at the King Georges Sound, he said he could not consent to be a slave but he has adopted a more severe slavery than he would have found with us, he is adopted into the family of a Mr Sherat a merchant & farmer, of course I could not refuse the subscribers the £20 as it had been expended on his account but if his friends think it right they must accept it by instalments from the little fund I left under your direction, it will take 4 years to do it in. I said I should [wait?] on his fulfilling his engagement to which he replied [? page torn] that I could not that he was not indentured by his lawful guardian. I was sorry to leave him but it was unavoidable, I must furnish other particulars at some more leisure (sic) time.' [11]
Attitudes around race
Attitudes around labour
Images
Newspaper notice advising of delays to James Pattison: https://trove.nla.gov.au/newspaper/article/641393?searchTerm=%22james%20pattison%22 Newspaper notice advising of James Pattison arrivals: https://trove.nla.gov.au/newspaper/article/641354?searchTerm=%22james%20pattison%22 Newspaper notice advising of Bussell's arrival: https://trove.nla.gov.au/newspaper/article/641315?searchTerm=%22james%20pattison%22%20bussell
Images notes
References

Sources

TLCMap ID
39160
Created At
2022-02-11 17:28:43
Updated At
2022-02-11 17:28:43

Frances Louisa Bussell - Derbarl Kerrigan

Placename
Derbarl Yerrigan (Swan River)
Type
Other

Details

Latitude
-31.959769
Longitude
115.86106

Description

Extended Data

Location notes
We do not know where exactly Bussell was around Derbarl Yerrigan so have estimated this location.
Date notes
Note at State Library of WA: Letter dated 1835 but 'Possibly should be 1834 as this is a copy of Frances Louisa’s letter to Capel Carter and it has been sent to various friends – all the English postmarks being before September 1835.' [1]
Biographical information
In a letter dated 18 September 1834 or 1835 (see 'Date notes'), Bussell speaks of her first impressions of the Swan River colony.
Links to slavery
Attitudes around race
Attitudes around labour
Images
Images notes
References

Sources

TLCMap ID
39161
Created At
2022-02-11 17:28:43
Updated At
2022-02-11 17:28:43

Frances Louisa Bussell - Augusta

Placename
Augusta
Type
Other

Details

Latitude
-34.326222
Longitude
115.166612

Description

Extended Data

Location notes
This located has been identified by the Heritage Council of Western Australia as the Bussell home site [14]
Date notes
We do not know the exact date that Bussell first reached Augusta, but one of her letters sent from here is dated 19 October 1834.
Biographical information
Bussell likely arrived in Augusta in early October 1834. In a letter written to her sister Emily on 19 October 1834, she writes that 'a day and two nights brought us to Augusta beautiful Augusta all well we were met by the darlings on the beach looking so sweet so happy so contented … in spite of the most rude and rustic menage we have passed our days in peace and tranquility … ' [2] John Garratt Bussell and his brothers meanwhile had been clearing land and building a homestead in the Vasse region, on Wadandi Noongar land. Frances Louisa and her daughters awaited joining them there. In the same letter she writes: 'The next time the Ellen comes she will transport us all to the Vasse with the exception of Charles and one of the Girls.' [2]
Links to slavery
Attitudes around race
Attitudes around labour
Images
Images notes
References

Sources

TLCMap ID
39162
Created At
2022-02-11 17:28:43
Updated At
2022-02-11 17:28:43

Frances Louisa Bussell - β€˜Cattle Chosen’

Placename
Undalup (Busselton)
Type
Other

Details

Latitude
-33.668694
Longitude
115.359194

Description

Extended Data

Location notes
Date notes
We do not know the exact date that Bussell reached Cattle Chosen, however she writes in a letter on 22 January 1836 that she is about to depart from Augusta, so we have given the estimate of 31 January. [4]
Biographical information
In early 1836 Bussell and her family moved from Augusta to a homestead built by John Garratt Bussell and his brothers. The Bussells named the property 'Cattle Chosen'. [11] In a letter dated 22 January 1836 to Elizabeth Capel Carter, Bussell writes: 'it is the last you will receive from Augusta, the Sally Ann is now at anchor waiting to transport us to Cattle Chosen where you may believe I have been long anxious to [set?] up my abode tho parting with Charles will be much felt but we do not expect that it can be for long as when John was at the Swan it was decided that the Vasse should soon become head quarters, I shall feel some regret at leaving Augusta for [truly?] it is really a sweet place and I still take great pleasure not unaccompanied by pain in inspecting the arduous labors of the inexperienced hands of our first young immigrants I am however fully satisfied it was a wise measure to abandon it and eventually with heavens blessing they will see a flourishing place rise up rounded by this magnanimous effort made by them to strike out anew ...' [4] This land belonged to the Wadandi Noongar people. Tensions built between the Wadandi Noongar and British colonists. Some Noongar men and women were employed by colonist George Layman. When Noongar man Gayware approached Layman to ask for his wife - who had been working for Layman - to return, they got into a dispute and Layman grabbed Gayware by the beard, a major violation in Noongar culture. Gayware speared Layman who died. Two days later, John Bussell and Magistrate John Molloy led a party of colonists and soldiers who purused and killed at least a dozen Noongar men, women, children and elders around Wonnerup, Busselton and Minninup. [16] Historian Warren Bert Kimberly described the massacre at Lake Minninup as 'one of the most bloodthirsty deeds ever committed by Englishmen'. [17 p 116] Bussell remained at Cattle Chosen until her death in 1845. [13? Check this]
Links to slavery
Attitudes around race
The Bussell family, in particular Frances Louisa's sons, were involved in violence toward the Wadandi Noongar people. John Bussell co-led the Wonnerup 'Minninup' massacre (see 'Biographical information') In Cattle Chosen: 'One suspects an antipathy between Miss Hayward and Mrs. Bussell. [Sophie Hayward was John Garrett's childhood sweetheart. Hayward was an orphan and her father was a Western Indian planter] The former demurred more than once at the prospect, as she deemed it, of not being mistress in her own house. Mrs Bussell once speaks of her as "the fickle Indian", and seems to show relief at a phase of estrangement.' [13, pp 125-126]
Attitudes around labour
Images
Images notes
References

Sources

TLCMap ID
39163
Created At
2022-02-11 17:28:43
Updated At
2022-02-11 17:28:43

George Leake - Portsmouth

Placename
Portsmouth, England
Type
Other

Details

Latitude
50.801389
Longitude
-1.109861

Description

Extended Data

Location notes
Selected location near the Portsmouth Historic Dockyard, though have not pinpointed the exact dock that the Calista departed from.
Date notes
Biographical information
George Leake was born in 1786 in England, the son of Anne Heading and Luke Leake. In 1813 he married Anne Grouse [6]. She has also been recorded as 'Anna Grownes (Growse)'. [8] They had one daughter, Ann Elizabeth. His wife Anne died in 1815. [1] He went on to marry again later in life, marrying Georgiana Mary Kingsford on 7 October 1840. [8] On 5 March 1829, Leake left for the Swan River colony aboard the Calista. [2]
Links to slavery
Attitudes around race
Attitudes around labour
Images
Images notes
References
[1] ADB, https://adb.anu.edu.au/biography/leake-george-2343 [2] https://passengers.history.sa.gov.au/node/1003600 [3] Jenny Chapman, Perseverando. The Leake family in the political, economic and social life of W.A. 1829-1902 [4] Jane Roberts, Two Years at Sea, London, Richard Bentley, 1834 [5] Ann Elizabeth Leake, Letter, 1830 Jan. 3 [manuscript], State Library of WA, ACC 1099A [6] SLWA 1955A/64 [7] SLWA 1955A/68 [8] The Bicentennial Dictionary of Western Australians, 'George LEAKE' [9] Heritage Council of Western Australia, Register of Heritage Places - Assessment Documentation: Henry Bull's Cottage, 6 February 1998, http://inherit.stateheritage.wa.gov.au/Admin/api/file/05586898-23ec-eee2-5ab1-8f6eddc65c7b [10] http://inherit.stateheritage.wa.gov.au/Public/Inventory/Details/22a9fb54-9ea6-4a31-b2c6-ad1058d1a5c9 [11] George Leake at Sea, Journal of Proceedings of the 1831 [12] https://trove.nla.gov.au/newspaper/article/639980?searchTerm=%22bank%20of%20western%20australia%22` [13] Michael J. Bourke, 1987, On the Swan: a History of Swan District, Western Australia, UWAP for the Swan Shire Council

Sources

TLCMap ID
39164
Created At
2022-02-11 17:28:52
Updated At
2022-02-11 17:28:52

George Leake - Walyalup

Placename
Walyalup (Fremantle) / Derbarl Yerrigan (Swan River)
Type
Other

Details

Latitude
-32.035861
Longitude
115.758806

Description

Extended Data

Location notes
Date notes
Biographical information
Leake arrived on the Calista at Fremantle on 5 August 1829. Two and a half months later his mother, his daughter and his brother Luke arrived on the Atwick.
Links to slavery
Attitudes around race
Attitudes around labour
Images
Images notes
References

Sources

TLCMap ID
39165
Created At
2022-02-11 17:28:52
Updated At
2022-02-11 17:28:52

James Stirling - London

Placename
London, England
Type
Other

Details

Latitude
51.505833
Longitude
-0.071056

Description

Extended Data

Location notes
Though we have selected St Katharine Docks, we do not know which dock the Success left from.
Date notes
Biographical information
James Stirling was born on 28 January 1791 at Drumpellier, an estate in Lanarkshire, Scotland. He was the fifth son of second cousins Andrew and Anne Stirling. [1, p 1] Stirling's maternal side had a strong naval tradition. He entered the navy as a first-class volunteer when he was 12 and went to the West Indies. He first saw action in the Napoleonic Wars when he joined HMS Glory as a Midshipman, aged 14. [1, p 13] While stationed in the Royal Navy at Jamaica, with his Uncle Charles Stirling was Commander-in-Chief, they received prize money for capturing ships, some of which contained slave-produced goods. [Georgie ref] After the end of the wars Stirling moved around Europe and English 'society'. In Woodbridge, Surrey, he became acquainted with the Mangles family, including his wife-to-be, Ellen Mangles. [2] They had 11 children, five daughters and six sons. Ellen's father James Mangles was Director of the East India Company and also owned a ship which transported enslaved people between Africa and the Caribbean. [Georgie refs] Following renewed naval activity and the possibility of colonisation in the Pacific by the French, Stirling was tasked with bringing a supply of currency to New South Wales and moving the location of the British garrison at at Meville Island to a more strategic location. [2] In April 1826 he was given command of the new Success; they sailed on 9 June. [1]
Links to slaver
Stirling had multiple connections to the slave trade. His intergenerational family businesses traded in slave-produced goods in the United States and Caribbean. His brother Walter Stirling received compensation for the loss of enslaved people in Guiana and Barbados. Stirling was stationed in the Royal Navy at Jamaica, where his Uncle Charles Stirling was Commander-in-Chief. They received prize money for capturing ships, some of which contained slave-produced goods. Stirling's father-in-law James Mangles owned a ship which transported enslaved people between Africa and the Caribbean. [Georgie refs]
Attitudes around race
In her biography of Stirling, Pamela Statham-Drew states that from his father Andrew's side came 'an enviable Scottish pedigree and enormous family pride.' Statham-Drew explains that Stirling's father Andrew 'often reminded his children they were descendants of one of the oldest untitled families in Europe who could trace their ancestry from Willielmus de Strivelyn, named in the early twelfth century Chartulary of Glasgow as the rightful owner of lands in the county of Lanark.' [1, p 1]
Attitudes around labour
Images
Wikimedia Commons portrait: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Jamesstirling.jpg State Library of NSW portrait: https://collection.sl.nsw.gov.au/record/9yM6GLV9
Images notes
References
[1] Pamela Statham-Drew, James Stirling: Admiral and Founding Governor of Western Australia, University of Western Australia Press, 2003 [2] Frank Crowley, The Australian Dictionary of Biography, https://adb.anu.edu.au/biography/stirling-sir-james-2702 [3] Chris Owen, "The Pinjarra massacre: it's time to speak the truth of this terrible slaughter", The Guardian, November 18, 2019, https://www.theguardian.com/australia-news/2019/nov/18/the-pinjarra-massacre-its-time-to-speak-the-truth-of-this-terrible-slaughter [4] https://govhouse.wa.gov.au/history-of-government-house/

Sources

TLCMap ID
39169
Created At
2022-02-11 17:29:22
Updated At
2022-02-11 17:29:22

George Leake - Ellen Brook

Placename
Ellen Brook
Type
Other

Details

Latitude
-31.779056
Longitude
116.000056

Description

Extended Data

Location notes
We have selected this location as it is the site of Henry Bull's cottage, which sat within Leake's 15,000 acre land grant (see 'Biographical information')
Date notes
We are yet to obtain the original land grant to check the date Leake officially started occupying this land. This date is therefore an estimate.
Biographical information
Leake had considerable wealth - he came to the colony with six servants and property valued at £1,116/10/4, and so was granted nearly 15,000 acres of land. [1] He was later granted 10,000 and 20 acres. [8] A report by the Heritage Council of Western Australia explains that rather than immediately residing and working on his first 15,000 land grant, 'Swan Location 1', Leake instead lived and worked in Fremantle while newfound partner Henry Bull worked on the land: 'In July 1831, he formed a partnership with Henry Bull in which Bull would improve Leake's grant in return for half of it. In this way, Leake could ensure that the necessary improvements were made on the property within the stipulated four year period in order to gain title to the land.' [9, p 4] It was on this land that Bull built what is today known as Henry Bull's cottage. [9] In 1836 Leake and Bull dissolved their partnership, and in 1838 Leake transferred title of half the land (7443 acres) to Bull. Leake kept the southern portion for himself, including the house and the mill. [9]
Links to slavery
Attitudes around race
Attitudes around labour
Images
Images notes
References

Sources

TLCMap ID
39166
Created At
2022-02-11 17:28:52
Updated At
2022-02-11 17:28:52

George Leake - Walyalup

Placename
Walyalup (Fremantle)
Type
Other

Details

Latitude
-32.054056
Longitude
115.745306

Description

Extended Data

Location notes
We do not know the exact location of Leake's home in Fremantle
Date notes
We do not know the exact date Leake moved to Fremantle, however an early reference is a letter written by his daughter, Ann Elizabeth, detailing the family's Fremantle home. [5]
Biographical information
A report by the Heritage Council of Western Australia states that 'He did not work his [Ellen Brook] grant himself, nor reside on it. A financial return from agricultural production could take several years to achieve, so Leake set himself up in a more profitable business, as a merchant at Fremantle.' [9, p 4] A letter written by his daughter, Ann Elizabeth Leake, to her former governess Miss Sykes on 3 January 1830 from the Swan River reads: 'I think you would laugh to see how we live here in a square place made of rushes which we have dignified with the name of house, but inside we are very comfortable, at least I think so in comparison with some of our neighbours ... There are three towns here, the one in which we live, is called Fremantle, which is composed of houses made of rushes or of wood and there are also a great many tents; it is situated at the sea-shore.' [5] The Leakes' home in Fremantle had many visitors and guests. [3] In Two Years at Sea, Jane Roberts describes the Leakes' home in Fremantle as 'the best in town' [4, p 86]
Links to slavery
Attitudes around race
Attitudes around labour
Images
Images notes
References

Sources

TLCMap ID
39167
Created At
2022-02-11 17:28:52
Updated At
2022-02-11 17:28:52

George Leake - Perth

Placename
Perth
Type
Other

Details

Latitude
-31.958611
Longitude
115.854028

Description

Extended Data

Location notes
Though Leake would have been in various parts of Perth regularly for different business and roles (see biographical information), we have a specific record of him being present at the Hodges Hotel on 18 May 1837. [12] According to the Bicentennial Dictionary of Western Australians, the Hodges Hotel was built 'on John Hodges' land Perth Town Lot L7, near Esplanade at foot of William St.' [8, p 1497]
Date notes
On 18 May 1837 Leake was recorded at a meeting of the Provisional Commitee and proprietors of the Bank of Western Australia. [12]
Biographical information
Leake held various roles relating to colonial administration, politics and business. He financed many colonists in the early years during financial struggle. He was one of the founders and original directors of the Bank of Western Australia, established in 1837. In 1839 he was appointed a magistrate of the territory, a chairman of the Perth Town Trust, a commissioner to act as guardian to emigrant minors sent out by the Children's Friend Society, and a member of the Legislative Council (the latter position he held until his death). He was also an early director of the Agricultural Society and chairman of the General Roads Trust. He died on 31 May 1849. [1]
Links to slavery
Attitudes around race
Attitudes around labour
Images
Newspaper notice of Leake's presence at Bank of Western Australia meeting at Hodges Hotel, Perth: https://trove.nla.gov.au/newspaper/article/639980?searchTerm=%22bank%20of%20western%20australia%22
Images notes
References

Sources

TLCMap ID
39168
Created At
2022-02-11 17:28:52
Updated At
2022-02-11 17:28:52

James Stirling - Warrane

Placename
Warrane (Sydney Cove)
Type
Other

Details

Latitude
-33.857583
Longitude
151.210194

Description

Extended Data

Location notes
Date notes
Biographical information
Before reaching Sydney, Success rounded the southern tip of Western Australia. Pamela Statham-Drew estimates it was around this time, above Cape Leeuwin, that Stirling decided to explore the west coast. The Success reached Sydney heads on 28 November 1826. [1, p 57]
Links to slaver
Stirling had multiple connections to the slave trade. His intergenerational family businesses traded in slave-produced goods in the United States and Caribbean. His brother Walter Stirling received compensation for the loss of enslaved people in Guiana and Barbados. Stirling was stationed in the Royal Navy at Jamaica, where his Uncle Charles Stirling was Commander-in-Chief. They received prize money for capturing ships, some of which contained slave-produced goods. Stirling's father-in-law James Mangles owned a ship which transported enslaved people between Africa and the Caribbean. [Georgie refs]
Attitudes around race
Attitudes around labour
Images
Lithograph by Guerard of Sydney Cove, 1826-1829: https://www.scienceandsociety.co.uk/results.asp?image=10421250
Images notes
References

Sources

TLCMap ID
39170
Created At
2022-02-11 17:29:22
Updated At
2022-02-11 17:29:22

James Stirling - Derbarl Yerrigan

Placename
Derbarl Yerrigan (Swan River)
Type
Other

Details

Latitude
-32.035861
Longitude
115.758806

Description

Extended Data

Location notes
Date notes
Biographical information
After New South Wales, Stirling returned to the west coast of Australia. Success reached Whadjuk Noongar Boodjar (Country), Wadjemup (Rottnest Island), on 5 March 1827. After staying the night outside Thomson Bay, Stirling and crew reached Derbarl Yerrigan (the Swan River), also Country belonging to Wadjuk Noongar, the following day. He spent a fortnight around here and was particularly impressed with the land. [1]
Links to slaver
Stirling had multiple connections to the slave trade. His intergenerational family businesses traded in slave-produced goods in the United States and Caribbean. His brother Walter Stirling received compensation for the loss of enslaved people in Guiana and Barbados. Stirling was stationed in the Royal Navy at Jamaica, where his Uncle Charles Stirling was Commander-in-Chief. They received prize money for capturing ships, some of which contained slave-produced goods. Stirling's father-in-law James Mangles owned a ship which transported enslaved people between Africa and the Caribbean. [Georgie refs]
Attitudes around race
Attitudes around labour
Images
Christopher Pease, Swan River 50 miles up, 2006: https://nga.gov.au/exhibition/niat07/Detail.cfm?IRN=163868&ViewID=2&MnuID=1 View of the Swan River, taken at the commencement of fresh water, in 1827, painted by Frederick Garling during the exploration by James Stirling: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:View_of_Swan_River_in_1827_by_Garling.png
Images notes
Christopher Pease on his artwork: 'This scene is taken from William John Huggins 1827 work Swan River 50 miles up. It depicts Captain Stirling’s exploration party coming ashore along the banks of the Derbarl Yerrigan (Swan River). In the foreground several Wajuk people sit passively as onlookers. On 29 September 1829 the first land grants were made open to the public. In 1839 the Ribbon Grants were initiated. These land grants divided the land into strips along the river. Each strip of land was given to individual families. For the Wajuk people this concept of individual land ownership was a foreign one. If you were to go to the river for water, egg, fish, waterfowl, turtle or worship after 1839 you were trespassing.'
References

Sources

TLCMap ID
39171
Created At
2022-02-11 17:29:22
Updated At
2022-02-11 17:29:22

James Stirling - England

Placename
England
Type
Other

Details

Latitude
51.505833
Longitude
-0.071056

Description

Extended Data

Location notes
Date notes
Biographical information
Stirling went on to South Asia after leaving Western Australia, reaching Java on 11 August 1827. The Success spent the next months in Madras, Penang and Ceylon. In Ceylon Stirling became ill - 'an intestinal inflammation with great derangement in the functions of the liver & bowels'. Certified to be unwell by Royal Navy surgeons, he was sent back to England on a merchant vessel, leaving the Success. He reached England on 7 July 1828. [1] After his initial trip, Stirling strongly advocated for a new colony in Western Australia. In his report to the Admiralty he concluded that 'I do not believe that a more eligible spot could be found in any part of the World.' [1, p 85] The Colonial Office had little interest in a new colony at Swan River, but Stirling was insistent in his campagining. [1, p 101]
Links to slaver
Stirling had multiple connections to the slave trade. His intergenerational family businesses traded in slave-produced goods in the United States and Caribbean. His brother Walter Stirling received compensation for the loss of enslaved people in Guiana and Barbados. Stirling was stationed in the Royal Navy at Jamaica, where his Uncle Charles Stirling was Commander-in-Chief. They received prize money for capturing ships, some of which contained slave-produced goods. Stirling's father-in-law James Mangles owned a ship which transported enslaved people between Africa and the Caribbean. [Georgie refs]
Attitudes around race
Back in England, Stirling came to know Major Thomas Moody, an ex-West Indian Plantation owner. Statham-Drew explains that 'Moody had apparently persuaded Stirling that he could get a number of individuals interested in settling the Swan River area under the umbrella of a private company.' Moody also had ideas to 'set up three classes of settlement - one for convicts on what he termed "the Dutch system", a second "for the profits of the association, conducted by the parish paupers & persons of that class in Ireland", and a third "for the encouragement of half castes from India, Chines and others who may be induced to settle in the northern climates of the Colony to raise cotton &c".' [1, p 105]
Attitudes around labour
Images
1827 map of Stirling's journey up Derbarl Yerrigan: https://archive.sro.wa.gov.au/index.php/chart-of-swan-river-by-captain-j-stirling-b-w-photographic-print-only-411
Images notes
This 1827 map of Stirling's journey up Derbarl Yerrigan marks 'lands intended for settlers and public persons', 'to be granted to Mr. T. Peel' and 'granted to Captn. Stirling R. N.'
References

Sources

TLCMap ID
39172
Created At
2022-02-11 17:29:22
Updated At
2022-02-11 17:29:22

James Stirling - London

Placename
Derbarl Yerrigan (Swan River)
Type
Other

Details

Latitude
-32.035861
Longitude
115.758806

Description

Extended Data

Location notes
Date notes
Biographical information
Stirling was successful in his campagining for the new colony. He returned to Western Australia in 1829. Aboard the Parmelia, Stirling and crew sighted Western Australia at noon on 31 May 1829, but they were unsuccessful entering Cockburn Sound so anchored off Rottnest Island for the night of 1 June. They reached the river mouth on 2 June 1829. [1, p 131]
Links to slaver
Stirling had multiple connections to the slave trade. His intergenerational family businesses traded in slave-produced goods in the United States and Caribbean. His brother Walter Stirling received compensation for the loss of enslaved people in Guiana and Barbados. Stirling was stationed in the Royal Navy at Jamaica, where his Uncle Charles Stirling was Commander-in-Chief. They received prize money for capturing ships, some of which contained slave-produced goods. Stirling's father-in-law James Mangles owned a ship which transported enslaved people between Africa and the Caribbean. [Georgie refs]
Attitudes around race
Stirling's report to the Admiralty described Aboriginal people under the heading of 'Animal Productions'. He likened Indigenous people around Derbarl Yerrigan to people around New South Wales, with 'large Heads, spare Trunks, long and disproportionate limbs. They are active and hardy in habit, and seem to possess the qualities usually springing from such habits; Bravery, Vivacity, and Quickness, and a Temper alternating between kindness and ferocity.' [1, p 84]
Attitudes around labour
Images
Images notes
References

Sources

TLCMap ID
39173
Created At
2022-02-11 17:29:22
Updated At
2022-02-11 17:29:22

James Stirling - Woodbridge

Placename
Woodbridge
Type
Other

Details

Latitude
-31.888778
Longitude
115.986361

Description

Extended Data

Location notes
Date notes
Biographical information
Stirling was allocated 5,000 acres at Swan River on 29 September 1829. [1, p 149] Pamela Statham-Drew writes that 'James, Ellen and the children spent some of the hot days of January 1831 in the small brick house James had built on their Woodbridge grant at Guildford. Later in the year a visitor from India, Colonel J. Hanson, described their retreat as "a little cottage orné" built on an elevated and beautiful site "at a turn of the river commanding a view along two extensive reaches and the land in front of it being all meadow land, very beautifully studded with forest trees, you my without much imagination conceive yourself placed in the midst of a gentleman's park at home." Hanson added that the Governor did not seem to spend much time there, being caught up with official business at Perth.' [1, p 186]
Links to slaver
Stirling had multiple connections to the slave trade. His intergenerational family businesses traded in slave-produced goods in the United States and Caribbean. His brother Walter Stirling received compensation for the loss of enslaved people in Guiana and Barbados. Stirling was stationed in the Royal Navy at Jamaica, where his Uncle Charles Stirling was Commander-in-Chief. They received prize money for capturing ships, some of which contained slave-produced goods. Stirling's father-in-law James Mangles owned a ship which transported enslaved people between Africa and the Caribbean. [Georgie refs]
Attitudes around race
Attitudes around labour
Images
Christopher Pease, Land Release 3, 2008 [page 7]: https://www.google.com/url?q=https://rgcopcorpweb920-cdn-endpoint.azureedge.net/-/media/Project/COP/COP/COP/Documents-and-Forms/Council/Documents/Strategies/Reconciliation-Action-Plan---Directors-Only---Final.PDF?rev%3D5281d6c7c24c4cf3ad7383c499acadc0%26modified%3D20181128022141&sa=D&source=editors&ust=1641790611780642&usg=AOvVaw1QZ2QNrHO3harJeczxWLqZ
Images notes
References

Sources

TLCMap ID
39174
Created At
2022-02-11 17:29:22
Updated At
2022-02-11 17:29:22

James Stirling - Meeandip

Placename
Meeandip (Garden Island)
Type
Other

Details

Latitude
-32.182833
Longitude
115.673222

Description

Extended Data

Location notes
Date notes
We do not know the exact date Stirling and family reached Garden Island, but records have indicated they were likely there from June 1829.
Biographical information
On 30 December 1828 Stirling became the first Governor of the Colony of Western Australia. He was in this role until October 1837. Before the first Government House was built in Perth, a tent residence was set up on Meeandup (Garden Island) between June and September of 1829.
Links to slaver
Stirling had multiple connections to the slave trade. His intergenerational family businesses traded in slave-produced goods in the United States and Caribbean. His brother Walter Stirling received compensation for the loss of enslaved people in Guiana and Barbados. Stirling was stationed in the Royal Navy at Jamaica, where his Uncle Charles Stirling was Commander-in-Chief. They received prize money for capturing ships, some of which contained slave-produced goods. Stirling's father-in-law James Mangles owned a ship which transported enslaved people between Africa and the Caribbean. [Georgie refs]
Attitudes around race
Attitudes around labour
Images
Images notes
References

Sources

TLCMap ID
39175
Created At
2022-02-11 17:29:22
Updated At
2022-02-11 17:29:22

James Stirling - Perth

Placename
Government House, Perth
Type
Other

Details

Latitude
-31.957833
Longitude
115.861944

Description

Extended Data

Location notes
The first Government House was demolished in 1887, the site is now part of the gardens of the current Government House.
Date notes
We do not know the exact date that Stirling moved into Government House but we know it was in 1834.
Biographical information
In August 1829 Stirling and his family moved to canvas tents near Derbarl Yerrigan in an area today known as the Stirling Gardens, until a temporary wooden building was erected in 1832. Finally in 1834 Stirling moved into the first Government House. The building had issues such as leaking roofs, damp, termites, and no visitors' accommodation, however it was not replaced by a new Government House until the 1850s, well after Stirling had left the colony. [4] In 1831 Colonel J. Hanson noted that Stirling spent most of his time in Perth rather than his Woodbridge residence. [1, p 186]
Links to slaver
Stirling had multiple connections to the slave trade. His intergenerational family businesses traded in slave-produced goods in the United States and Caribbean. His brother Walter Stirling received compensation for the loss of enslaved people in Guiana and Barbados. Stirling was stationed in the Royal Navy at Jamaica, where his Uncle Charles Stirling was Commander-in-Chief. They received prize money for capturing ships, some of which contained slave-produced goods. Stirling's father-in-law James Mangles owned a ship which transported enslaved people between Africa and the Caribbean. [Georgie refs]
Attitudes around race
Attitudes around labour
Images
The first permanent Government House built in Perth: https://purl.slwa.wa.gov.au/slwa_b4164743_1
Images notes
This image shows the first Government House built in 1834. A new Government House was completed in 1864 (well after Stirling left the colony), the same building that stands today. [4]
References

Sources

TLCMap ID
39176
Created At
2022-02-11 17:29:22
Updated At
2022-02-11 17:29:22

James Stirling - Kincinnup

Placename
Kincinnup (Albany)
Type
Other

Details

Latitude
-35.028833
Longitude
117.882556

Description

Extended Data

Location notes
Date notes
Biographical information
To avoid the heat of the summer in 1831, Stiring and his family travelled south. They entered King George Sound on 12 November aboard the Sulphur and stayed in Kinjarling (Albany). In these early years Stirling led advances into Noongar land around the Swan, Murray, Collie, Preston, Blackwood and Vasse Rivers - NEED TO PINPOINT THESE LOCATIONS [2]
Links to slaver
Stirling had multiple connections to the slave trade. His intergenerational family businesses traded in slave-produced goods in the United States and Caribbean. His brother Walter Stirling received compensation for the loss of enslaved people in Guiana and Barbados. Stirling was stationed in the Royal Navy at Jamaica, where his Uncle Charles Stirling was Commander-in-Chief. They received prize money for capturing ships, some of which contained slave-produced goods. Stirling's father-in-law James Mangles owned a ship which transported enslaved people between Africa and the Caribbean. [Georgie refs]
Attitudes around race
Attitudes around labour
Images
Christopher Pease, New Water Dreaming, 2005: https://www.researchgate.net/figure/Christopher-Pease-New-Water-Dreaming-2005-Oil-on-canvas-100-x-180cm-Source-Artist_fig24_337561561 Christopher Pease, Panoramic view of Minang Boojar Minang Land, 2013 [see heading 'New Panoramas]: https://theconversation.com/a-view-of-everything-panoramas-of-the-western-australian-coast-25656
Images notes
References

Sources

TLCMap ID
39177
Created At
2022-02-11 17:29:22
Updated At
2022-02-11 17:29:22

James Stirling - Isle of Wight

Placename
Isle of Wight, England
Type
Other

Details

Latitude
50.793
Longitude
-1.107389

Description

Extended Data

Location notes
Date notes
Biographical information
Stirling returned with his family to England for an extended visit in 1832. Aboard the Sulphur they reached the Isle of Wight on 11 December. They returned to the family home at Pirbright Lodge, as well as Ellen's family home in Woodbridge. [1, p 227]
Links to slaver
Stirling had multiple connections to the slave trade. His intergenerational family businesses traded in slave-produced goods in the United States and Caribbean. His brother Walter Stirling received compensation for the loss of enslaved people in Guiana and Barbados. Stirling was stationed in the Royal Navy at Jamaica, where his Uncle Charles Stirling was Commander-in-Chief. They received prize money for capturing ships, some of which contained slave-produced goods. Stirling's father-in-law James Mangles owned a ship which transported enslaved people between Africa and the Caribbean. [Georgie refs]
Attitudes around race
Attitudes around labour
Images
Images notes
References

Sources

TLCMap ID
39178
Created At
2022-02-11 17:29:22
Updated At
2022-02-11 17:29:22

James Stirling - Derbarl Yerrigan

Placename
Derbarl Yerrigan (Swan River)
Type
Other

Details

Latitude
-32.035861
Longitude
115.758806

Description

Extended Data

Location notes
Date notes
Biographical information
After reaching Kinjarling (Albany) on James Pattison on 19 June 1834 and staying for nearly two months, Stirling arrived back at Derbarl Yerrigan on 19 August.
Links to slaver
Stirling had multiple connections to the slave trade. His intergenerational family businesses traded in slave-produced goods in the United States and Caribbean. His brother Walter Stirling received compensation for the loss of enslaved people in Guiana and Barbados. Stirling was stationed in the Royal Navy at Jamaica, where his Uncle Charles Stirling was Commander-in-Chief. They received prize money for capturing ships, some of which contained slave-produced goods. Stirling's father-in-law James Mangles owned a ship which transported enslaved people between Africa and the Caribbean. [Georgie refs]
Attitudes around race
Attitudes around labour
Images
Images notes
References

Sources

TLCMap ID
39179
Created At
2022-02-11 17:29:22
Updated At
2022-02-11 17:29:22

James Stirling - Pinjarra

Placename
Pinjarra
Type
Other

Details

Latitude
-32.63
Longitude
115.871

Description

Extended Data

Location notes
Date notes
Biographical information
At 8am on 28 October 1834, Stirling led a party of 25 people to attack a Pindjarup Noongar encampment on the Murray River. His party including five mounted police officers, eight soldiers of the 21st Regiment, police superintendent Theophilus Ellis, surveyor general JS Roe, prominent colonist Thomas Peel, and eight civilians. They shot and killed between 15 and 80, or possibly more, Noongar women, men and children. [3] As Chris Owen demonstrates, quotes from the time indicate this was not a 'battle' but a massacre. In Stirling's letters to the colonial secretary in London, Lord Glenelg, he declared a 'check' was needed on Noongar as they had killed colonist Hugh Nesbitt, one of Peel's employees, and that he intended to inflict 'such acts of decisive severity as will appal them as people'. Stirling told surviving Noongar: 'If any person should be killed by them, not one would be allowed to remain alive this side of the mountains.' Owen states that 'Glenelg responded to Stirling’s report with alarm, suggesting that the attack was more a form of warfare than enforcement of British law. He pointed out that Aboriginal people were British subjects and thus protected under the law.' In 1868 a description attributed to Corporal Haggarty of the 63rd Regiment called it 'indiscriminate slaughter of a harmless and unoffending tribe' where '200 to 300 peaceable natives [were] deliberately shot down'. [3]
Links to slaver
Stirling had multiple connections to the slave trade. His intergenerational family businesses traded in slave-produced goods in the United States and Caribbean. His brother Walter Stirling received compensation for the loss of enslaved people in Guiana and Barbados. Stirling was stationed in the Royal Navy at Jamaica, where his Uncle Charles Stirling was Commander-in-Chief. They received prize money for capturing ships, some of which contained slave-produced goods. Stirling's father-in-law James Mangles owned a ship which transported enslaved people between Africa and the Caribbean. [Georgie refs]
Attitudes around race
At 8am on 28 October 1834, Stirling led a party of 25 people to attack a Pindjarup Noongar encampment on the Murray River. They shot and killed between 15 and 80, or possibly more, Noongar women, men and children. [3] As Chris Owen demonstrates, quotes from the time indicate this was not a 'battle' but a massacre. In Stirling's letters to the colonial secretary in London, Lord Glenelg, he declared a 'check' was needed on Noongar as they had killed colonist Hugh Nesbitt, one of Peel's employees, and that he intended to inflict 'such acts of decisive severity as will appal them as people'. Stirling told survivors: 'If any person should be killed by them, not one [Noongar] would be allowed to remain alive this side of the mountains.' In 1868 a description attributed to Corporal Haggarty of the 63rd Regiment called it 'indiscriminate slaughter of a harmless and unoffending tribe' where '200 to 300 peaceable natives [were] deliberately shot down'. [3]
Attitudes around labour
Images
Laurel Nannup, Quirriup, 2011: https://www.awm.gov.au/collection/C2679424
Images notes
References

Sources

TLCMap ID
39180
Created At
2022-02-11 17:29:22
Updated At
2022-02-11 17:29:22

James Walcott - β€˜Good Hope’ plantation

Placename
Good Hope' plantation, Demerara (Guyana)
Type
Other

Details

Latitude
6.780472
Longitude
-58.052222

Description

Extended Data

Location notes
We have located Walcott at the Good Hope sugar plantation [11, 12]
Date notes
Though Walcott was likely in Demerara before 1813, the earliest record we have of him there is in April 1813. The Essequebo & Demerary Royal Gazette states on Saturday April 10, 1813: ‘SECRETARY's OFFICE. This is to inform the Public, that the following Persons intend quitting this Colony: ... James Walcott, in fourteen days or six weeks, from the 5th of April.’ [3]
Biographical information
Barbados-born James Walcott was owner of the 'Good Hope' sugar plantation, and owner of the St Christopher estate with John Walcott, probably his brother. Good Hope and St Christopher were both within Demerara - today part of what is known as Guyana. [1] Walcott was the business partner of Charles Dawson Ridley, who also oversaw plantations and lived in Demerara. They were likely also brothers-in-law: both married women born in Demerara who had their first children there, before both families moved to Britain and then onto Western Austraila. Two of Ridley’s children also went on to marry Walcotts. [1] However, as Jane Lydon notes there is a discrepancy in the records around Walcott's marriage: 'Banns of Matrimony published in Demerara state James Walcott’s wife as Johanna Forrester', while 'Walcott’s ‘Brady’ family tree states that he married Johanna Perry (b. 1803 Demerara) and they had their first child, Elizabeth Elliot Walcott, in Demerara in 1818. A John Perry co-owned a plantation in Demerara in 1817 that Ridley subsequently administered in 1826, perhaps hinting at this Demerara network.' [1]
Links to slavery
Walcott was owner of the 'Good Hope' sugar plantation, and owner of the St Christopher estate with John Walcott, probably his brother. Good Hope and St Christopher were both within Demerara - today part of what is known as Guyana. On 30 November 1835 John Walcott was awarded £7256 for 134 enslaved people. So James may have bought out his brother in 1826. [1] Slavery heritage of Demerara: Demerara is today part of what is known as Guyana. Some of the earliest settlers of Guyana were Arawak, Carib, and possibly Warao. Although Christopher Columbus sighted the Guyana coast in 1498 and Spain claimed the area, the first Europeans to colonise the land were the Dutch in the late 16th century. In the mid-17th century the Dutch began bringing over enslaved people from West Africa to cultivate sugarcane. From the 1740s, English settlers from Caribbean islands began to move in on the region, first on the island of Wakenaam, then on the coast of Essequibo, followed by Demerara. By 1760, the British were the largest contingent in Demerara. During the Napoleonic wars the British and French in particular fought over the land, but in 1796 the British captured the territories and except for short intervals held 'possession'. In 1831 the British combined Demerara, Essequibo and Berbice to form 'British Guiana'. In 1823 Demerera was the site of one of the greatest uprisings of enslaved people in history: the 1823 Demerara rebellion involved over 10,000 enslaved people and was crucial in the dismantling of Caribbean slave systems. [1]
Attitudes around race
Attitudes around labour
Images
An Illustrated History of British Guiana by George Hanneman Bennett: https://www.google.com.au/books/edition/An_Illustrated_History_of_British_Guiana/pe0jAAAAMAAJ?hl=en&gbpv=1&printsec=frontcover
References
[1] Jane Lydon forthcoming article [2] https://www.vc.id.au/tb/bgcolonistsW.html [3] Essequebo & Demerary Royal Gazette, Saturday April 10, 1813, vol. 8, no. 570 "[4] State Library of Western Australia, Acc. No. 711A/23, 5 August 1836, 'His Majesty to James Walcott. Grant of 16,083 acres being Location H. Avon River.'" [5] State Library of Western Australia, Acc. No. 711A/39, 17 June 1839, 'James Walcott Esquire to Mess’rs Viveash and Smith. Conveyance of 11993 acres of Land on the Avon River-Yorkshire being part of Location H.' [6] William J. Edgar, 'The Convict Era in Western Australia: Its Economic, Social and Political Consequences' https://researchrepository.murdoch.edu.au/id/eprint/21436/2/02whole.pdf [7] Western Australian Dictionary of Biography, http://www.friendsofbattyelibrary.org.au/files/W.pdf [8] https://trove.nla.gov.au/newspaper/article/642385?searchTerm=%22james%20walcott%22%20avon%20river [9] https://www.wikitree.com/wiki/Walcott-377 [10] https://trove.nla.gov.au/newspaper/article/640035?searchTerm=walcott [11] https://gy.geoview.info/good_hope,3378597 [12] https://mapcarta.com/19102872 [13] https://gutenberg.net.au/ebooks14/1402751h.html [14] https://www.ucl.ac.uk/lbs/person/view/2146652229

Sources

TLCMap ID
39182
Created At
2022-02-11 17:29:32
Updated At
2022-02-11 17:29:32

James Stirling - Portsmouth

Placename
Portsmouth, England
Type
Other

Details

Latitude
50.800222
Longitude
-1.10925

Description

Extended Data

Location notes
Date notes
Pamela Statham-Drew writes that Stirling and his family 'arrived at Portsmouth around 23 May [1839].' [1, p 347]
Biographical information
Stirling and his family left Western Australia on 6 January 1839. Pamela Statham-Drew writes that 'The colony had weathered the storm of infancy but it was by no means prosperous, and any dreams he might have had of materially benefting from the position had not been realised.' [1, p 373] Stirling had struggled for colonial support in establishing the colony. The Australian Dictionary of Biography states: 'At various times Stirling was strongly criticized for his inept administration, for his aloofness or domineering attitude towards his civil officers, for his lack of humour, for his occasional acts of nepotism in the public service, and for his erratic and blundering land policies.' [2] After reaching Portsmouth in late May 1839, Stirling and family went to Ellen's family home in Woodbridge, Guildford. Within a week Stirling was back in London. [1] He considered another colonial appointment, but was appointed to command ships Indus and Howe in the Mediterranean. He continued campaigning for more land in Western Australia, but was unsuccessful. [2]
Links to slaver
Stirling had multiple connections to the slave trade. His intergenerational family businesses traded in slave-produced goods in the United States and Caribbean. His brother Walter Stirling received compensation for the loss of enslaved people in Guiana and Barbados. Stirling was stationed in the Royal Navy at Jamaica, where his Uncle Charles Stirling was Commander-in-Chief. They received prize money for capturing ships, some of which contained slave-produced goods. Stirling's father-in-law James Mangles owned a ship which transported enslaved people between Africa and the Caribbean. [Georgie refs]
Attitudes around race
Attitudes around labour
Images
Images notes
References

Sources

TLCMap ID
39181
Created At
2022-02-11 17:29:22
Updated At
2022-02-11 17:29:22

James Walcott - Kersbrook

Placename
Kersbrook, Devon
Type
Other

Details

Latitude
50.638917
Longitude
-3.321111

Description

Extended Data

Location notes
Six of Ridley's children were born in Devon from 1820 to 1828, suggesting he may have been an 'absentee' owner of the plantations during this time while he lived in England with his family. However, his place of residence during these years has not been confirmed. [1] One child, Mary Anna (Walcott) Stafford, was recorded being baptised in East Budleigh, Devon. Wikitree states 'Parents named as James and Joanna Walcott living at Kersybrook [Kersbrook?], Devon.' [9]
Date notes
We do not know the exact dates that Walcott was in Devon, however we know that his children were born there from 1820 to 1828. We have therefore given an estimate date of 1 December 1820.
Biographical information
Six of Ridley's children were born in Devon from 1820 to 1828, suggesting he may have been an 'absentee' owner of the plantations during this time while he lived in England with his family. However, his place of residence during these years has not been confirmed. [1] Walcott was still recorded as owner of the Good Hope sugar plantation as late as 1817, and the St Christopher estate as late as 1826. [1]
Links to slavery
Walcott was owner of the 'Good Hope' sugar plantation, and owner of the St Christopher estate with John Walcott, probably his brother. Good Hope and St Christopher were both within Demerara - today part of what is known as Guyana. On 30 November 1835 John Walcott was awarded £7256 for 134 enslaved people. So James may have bought out his brother in 1826. [1] Slavery heritage of Demerara: Demerara is today part of what is known as Guyana. Some of the earliest settlers of Guyana were Arawak, Carib, and possibly Warao. Although Christopher Columbus sighted the Guyana coast in 1498 and Spain claimed the area, the first Europeans to colonise the land were the Dutch in the late 16th century. In the mid-17th century the Dutch began bringing over enslaved people from West Africa to cultivate sugarcane. From the 1740s, English settlers from Caribbean islands began to move in on the region, first on the island of Wakenaam, then on the coast of Essequibo, followed by Demerara. By 1760, the British were the largest contingent in Demerara. During the Napoleonic wars the British and French in particular fought over the land, but in 1796 the British captured the territories and except for short intervals held 'possession'. In 1831 the British combined Demerara, Essequibo and Berbice to form 'British Guiana'. In 1823 Demerera was the site of one of the greatest uprisings of enslaved people in history: the 1823 Demerara rebellion involved over 10,000 enslaved people and was crucial in the dismantling of Caribbean slave systems. [1]
Attitudes around race
Attitudes around labour
Images
References

Sources

TLCMap ID
39183
Created At
2022-02-11 17:29:32
Updated At
2022-02-11 17:29:32

James Walcott - Portsmouth

Placename
Portsmouth
Type
Other

Details

Latitude
50.801389
Longitude
-1.109861

Description

Extended Data

Location notes
Selected location near the Portsmouth Historic Dockyard, though have not pinpointed the exact dock that the Wanstead departed from.
Date notes
We do not know exactly when Walcott arrived in England before departing for Western Australia. However we know that the ship he sailed on, the Wanstead, departed Portsmouth on 14 August 1829.
Biographical information
Walcott traveled to England before departing for Western Australia. He left London on the Wanstead on 14 August 1829, along with Charles Dawson Ridley. One of Walcott's children, Robert, was recorded as born in Western Cape Town, South Africa, in 1829. This was presumably about halfway through the journey [1]
Links to slavery
Walcott was owner of the 'Good Hope' sugar plantation, and owner of the St Christopher estate with John Walcott, probably his brother. Good Hope and St Christopher were both within Demerara - today part of what is known as Guyana. On 30 November 1835 John Walcott was awarded £7256 for 134 enslaved people. So James may have bought out his brother in 1826. [1] Slavery heritage of Demerara: Demerara is today part of what is known as Guyana. Some of the earliest settlers of Guyana were Arawak, Carib, and possibly Warao. Although Christopher Columbus sighted the Guyana coast in 1498 and Spain claimed the area, the first Europeans to colonise the land were the Dutch in the late 16th century. In the mid-17th century the Dutch began bringing over enslaved people from West Africa to cultivate sugarcane. From the 1740s, English settlers from Caribbean islands began to move in on the region, first on the island of Wakenaam, then on the coast of Essequibo, followed by Demerara. By 1760, the British were the largest contingent in Demerara. During the Napoleonic wars the British and French in particular fought over the land, but in 1796 the British captured the territories and except for short intervals held 'possession'. In 1831 the British combined Demerara, Essequibo and Berbice to form 'British Guiana'. In 1823 Demerera was the site of one of the greatest uprisings of enslaved people in history: the 1823 Demerara rebellion involved over 10,000 enslaved people and was crucial in the dismantling of Caribbean slave systems. [1]
Attitudes around race
Attitudes around labour
Images
References

Sources

TLCMap ID
39184
Created At
2022-02-11 17:29:32
Updated At
2022-02-11 17:29:32

James Walcott - Walyalup

Placename
Walyalup (Fremantle)
Type
Other

Details

Latitude
-32.056861
Longitude
115.741389

Description

Extended Data

Location notes
Date notes
Biographical information
Walcott and Charles Dawson Ridley, along with their families, are described by the Legacies of British Slavery database as ‘what appears to have been a group of people moving from Demerara to Western Australia c. 1830' [14] Both arrived at Walyalup (Fremantle) aboard the Wanstead on 30 January 1830. [1] Walcott was a major advocate of the Swan River colony. In response to negative comments and reports of the fledgling colony, he threatened to ‘thrash [a critic of Swan River] if he spoke against it more, for so persuaded was he that this poor fellow had never been there and Captain Sterling (sic) was too much of the gentleman to state to the world a favourable account of any place without foundation.’ [1]
Links to slavery
Walcott was owner of the 'Good Hope' sugar plantation, and owner of the St Christopher estate with John Walcott, probably his brother. Good Hope and St Christopher were both within Demerara - today part of what is known as Guyana. On 30 November 1835 John Walcott was awarded £7256 for 134 enslaved people. So James may have bought out his brother in 1826. [1] Slavery heritage of Demerara: Demerara is today part of what is known as Guyana. Some of the earliest settlers of Guyana were Arawak, Carib, and possibly Warao. Although Christopher Columbus sighted the Guyana coast in 1498 and Spain claimed the area, the first Europeans to colonise the land were the Dutch in the late 16th century. In the mid-17th century the Dutch began bringing over enslaved people from West Africa to cultivate sugarcane. From the 1740s, English settlers from Caribbean islands began to move in on the region, first on the island of Wakenaam, then on the coast of Essequibo, followed by Demerara. By 1760, the British were the largest contingent in Demerara. During the Napoleonic wars the British and French in particular fought over the land, but in 1796 the British captured the territories and except for short intervals held 'possession'. In 1831 the British combined Demerara, Essequibo and Berbice to form 'British Guiana'. In 1823 Demerera was the site of one of the greatest uprisings of enslaved people in history: the 1823 Demerara rebellion involved over 10,000 enslaved people and was crucial in the dismantling of Caribbean slave systems. [1]
Attitudes around race
Attitudes around labour
Images
References

Sources

TLCMap ID
39185
Created At
2022-02-11 17:29:32
Updated At
2022-02-11 17:29:32

James Walcott - Caversham / Lockridge

Placename
Caversham / Lockridge
Type
Other

Details

Latitude
-31.886583
Longitude
115.978583

Description

Extended Data

Location notes
Date notes
Walcott was awarded land on the Swan River on 14 December 1830 [1]
Biographical information
Along with Ridley, Walcott was one of the first large land grantees in WA. Both had substantial capital and were awarded prime allotments on Wadjuk Noongar Boodjar (Country), on Derbarl Yerrigan (the Swan River), opposite the Governor of WA and near the junction of the Helena and Swan Rivers. American historian Warren Bert Kimberly described Ridley and Walcott amongst those first colonists who had ‘chosen places where the soil appeared most promising, and where they could partake of the advantage of river transit’. [1] Kimberly recorded awards of land in 1830 on the Swan 'to C. D. Ridley, 1,432½ acres in fee simple, 1st May; and on 14th December 1830 James Walcott, 16,083, fee simple; 17th December, Charles D. Ridley, 8,750.' [1] Jane Lydon explains that 'Before 1832 ... colonists arriving before the end of 1830 could claim 40 acres for every £3 of capital invested, and those arriving after December 1830 could claim 20 acres. According to the land schedule (or Return of Property on which land has been claimed from 1st September to 30th June 1830), Walcott’s family comprised one wife, 6 children and 7 servants; his ‘amount of property’ comprised £105 servants and children, livestock £282, 10 ½ s., implements and machinery £337 11s., provisions £253 12s. 11 ¼, seeds and plants £16, 15s. 7d., miscellaneous £137 2s. 9d., totalling £1,132 12s. 3 ¼ d (‘property inapplicable to the cultivation of land’ £442).' [1] Though Ridley and Walcott had adjoining blocks, there are signs that they went their own ways after arrival, such as a dispute in late 1835 regarding an agreement to erect a party fence between their adjoining properties. But they were still neighbours in February 1837 when the local newspaper reported a terrible fire at Walcott's property, 'which, in less than ten minutes, destroyed the whole of the thatched dwelling-house, and kitchen adjoining, with about thirty bushels of barley, and ten of wheat, in the latter building.' Ridley's son is referenced as one of the Walcott's neighbours in this article. [1]
Links to slavery
Walcott was owner of the 'Good Hope' sugar plantation, and owner of the St Christopher estate with John Walcott, probably his brother. Good Hope and St Christopher were both within Demerara - today part of what is known as Guyana. On 30 November 1835 John Walcott was awarded £7256 for 134 enslaved people. So James may have bought out his brother in 1826. [1] Slavery heritage of Demerara: Demerara is today part of what is known as Guyana. Some of the earliest settlers of Guyana were Arawak, Carib, and possibly Warao. Although Christopher Columbus sighted the Guyana coast in 1498 and Spain claimed the area, the first Europeans to colonise the land were the Dutch in the late 16th century. In the mid-17th century the Dutch began bringing over enslaved people from West Africa to cultivate sugarcane. From the 1740s, English settlers from Caribbean islands began to move in on the region, first on the island of Wakenaam, then on the coast of Essequibo, followed by Demerara. By 1760, the British were the largest contingent in Demerara. During the Napoleonic wars the British and French in particular fought over the land, but in 1796 the British captured the territories and except for short intervals held 'possession'. In 1831 the British combined Demerara, Essequibo and Berbice to form 'British Guiana'. In 1823 Demerera was the site of one of the greatest uprisings of enslaved people in history: the 1823 Demerara rebellion involved over 10,000 enslaved people and was crucial in the dismantling of Caribbean slave systems. [1]
Attitudes around race
Attitudes around labour
Images
References

Sources

TLCMap ID
39186
Created At
2022-02-11 17:29:32
Updated At
2022-02-11 17:29:32

James Walcott - Avon Valley

Placename
Avon Valley, south of York
Type
Other

Details

Latitude
-32.06557
Longitude
116.854073

Description

Extended Data

Location notes
Location based on newspaper article detailing perimeters of land granted.
Date notes
We do not know when Walcott moved to his Avon Valley block, but he was granted land there on 5 August 1836. [4]
Biographical information
Walcott was granted 16,083 acres around the Avon River, south of York. [4, 8] His block became known as the ‘Walcott Estate’. However he speculated and eventually incurred considerable debts, being forced to sell his Avon holding. Documents dated 17 June 1839 indicate the 'Conveyance of 11993 acres of Land on the Avon River-Yorkshire' from James Walcott Esquire to Mess’rs Viveash and Smith. [5] The Viveash family finalised the purchase of the Walcott Estate in July 1839, Samuel Viveash paying β‚€16,000 for 4,860 hectares. [6] William Edgar writes that when the Viveash family moved to the property in 1839, 'Though taken up some years before, the estate was almost entirely uncleared. It was covered with the tough and wiry ‘jam’ and York gum trees. The former owner, James Walcott, had left the colony for Mauritius two years before. It is probable the property had thus been neglected in the intervening period and very little developmental work had been done. Like so many others at the time, Walcott also had been granted land in the Upper Swan region (1107 acres or 448 hectares). His principal residence was there. The holding between York and the Dale would have been sufficiently remote to militate against much development.' [6, pp 54-55]
Links to slavery
Walcott was owner of the 'Good Hope' sugar plantation, and owner of the St Christopher estate with John Walcott, probably his brother. Good Hope and St Christopher were both within Demerara - today part of what is known as Guyana. On 30 November 1835 John Walcott was awarded £7256 for 134 enslaved people. So James may have bought out his brother in 1826. [1] Slavery heritage of Demerara: Demerara is today part of what is known as Guyana. Some of the earliest settlers of Guyana were Arawak, Carib, and possibly Warao. Although Christopher Columbus sighted the Guyana coast in 1498 and Spain claimed the area, the first Europeans to colonise the land were the Dutch in the late 16th century. In the mid-17th century the Dutch began bringing over enslaved people from West Africa to cultivate sugarcane. From the 1740s, English settlers from Caribbean islands began to move in on the region, first on the island of Wakenaam, then on the coast of Essequibo, followed by Demerara. By 1760, the British were the largest contingent in Demerara. During the Napoleonic wars the British and French in particular fought over the land, but in 1796 the British captured the territories and except for short intervals held 'possession'. In 1831 the British combined Demerara, Essequibo and Berbice to form 'British Guiana'. In 1823 Demerera was the site of one of the greatest uprisings of enslaved people in history: the 1823 Demerara rebellion involved over 10,000 enslaved people and was crucial in the dismantling of Caribbean slave systems. [1]
Attitudes around race
Attitudes around labour
Images
Newspaper notice describing the geographical boundaries of Walcott's Avon River block: https://trove.nla.gov.au/newspaper/article/639169?searchTerm=%22james%20walcott%22%20avon%20river Newspaper notice detailing the impending sale of Walcott's Estate: https://trove.nla.gov.au/newspaper/article/639191?searchTerm=walcott%20estate Newspaper advertisement for sale of Walcott's land: https://trove.nla.gov.au/newspaper/article/214041747?searchTerm=%22james%20walcott%22%201837
References

Sources

TLCMap ID
39187
Created At
2022-02-11 17:29:32
Updated At
2022-02-11 17:29:32

James Walcott - Port Louis

Placename
Port Louis, Mauritius
Type
Other

Details

Latitude
-20.159306
Longitude
57.502278

Description

Extended Data

Location notes
We do not know exactly where Walcott lived in Mauritius, so have used the estimate of Port Louis as presumably this is where he arrived.
Date notes
We do not know what date Walcott arrived in Mauritius, but he left WA on 29 March 1837. We have estimated the journey to take about one month. In a Proposal to Governor Darling by James Stirling on 14 December 1826 he estimated it would take 3 weeks to travel from the Swan River colony to Mauritius. [13]
Biographical information
The Perth Gazette reported that on 29 March 1837, Walcott, his wife and two children left Western Australia for Mauritius aboard the Shepherd. [10] It is unclear where he ended up. The Dictionary of Western Australians indicates that Walcott 'Suffered financial misfortune in England & Jamaica. Returned to Eng. to organise his affairs. He & members of his family sailed several times during 1850s. Sold his grants 1840s & ended his days with a son who had pastoral station Champion Bay district "Mininooka".' [7]
Links to slavery
Walcott was owner of the 'Good Hope' sugar plantation, and owner of the St Christopher estate with John Walcott, probably his brother. Good Hope and St Christopher were both within Demerara - today part of what is known as Guyana. On 30 November 1835 John Walcott was awarded £7256 for 134 enslaved people. So James may have bought out his brother in 1826. [1] Slavery heritage of Demerara: Demerara is today part of what is known as Guyana. Some of the earliest settlers of Guyana were Arawak, Carib, and possibly Warao. Although Christopher Columbus sighted the Guyana coast in 1498 and Spain claimed the area, the first Europeans to colonise the land were the Dutch in the late 16th century. In the mid-17th century the Dutch began bringing over enslaved people from West Africa to cultivate sugarcane. From the 1740s, English settlers from Caribbean islands began to move in on the region, first on the island of Wakenaam, then on the coast of Essequibo, followed by Demerara. By 1760, the British were the largest contingent in Demerara. During the Napoleonic wars the British and French in particular fought over the land, but in 1796 the British captured the territories and except for short intervals held 'possession'. In 1831 the British combined Demerara, Essequibo and Berbice to form 'British Guiana'. In 1823 Demerera was the site of one of the greatest uprisings of enslaved people in history: the 1823 Demerara rebellion involved over 10,000 enslaved people and was crucial in the dismantling of Caribbean slave systems. [1]
Attitudes around race
Attitudes around labour
Images
Newspaper article advising of Walcott's impending departure and claims to be sent to George Leake: https://trove.nla.gov.au/newspaper/article/640053?searchTerm=walcott
References

Sources

TLCMap ID
39188
Created At
2022-02-11 17:29:32
Updated At
2022-02-11 17:29:32
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